TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

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TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

本刊今年10-14期有4期属于医疗题材,涉及血液病、心血管病、精神疾病和神经疾病四类疾病,以及诊断、治疗、人才培养等不同环节,这里统称为“医四篇”。“医四篇”内容丰富,知识点众多,草草看一遍可能会忽略一些知识点。因此,本刊小编们将分成三期来总结。

增刊的语言材料大多来自“医四篇”,也有一部分来自本刊今年其他各期,以及权威词典。本期包括动词、句、段和医疗词汇四部分。

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

M·S 10

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

M·S 11

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

M·S 13

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

M·S 14

医疗四篇回顾

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

本期我们一起来学习最后一部分内容。

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

第一期回顾

1

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

第二期回顾

2

医疗词汇总结(三)

健康和疾病

健康

physical health:身体健康(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. Even mild forms of distress affect work, child-rearing and physical health.

mental-health:心理健康(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. Mental-healthcare needs to change..

疾病

disease:疾病(见M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》)

Eg. Parkinson’s disease

解析:从构词法区分disease和decease。

disease是dis+ease,即不舒服。

decease(死亡)是cease(停止)的同根词。

illness:疾病(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. mental illness 精神病

condition:健康状况;无法治愈的长期病(见M·S10 《英国病人》,M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》,M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

(a) [不可数名词, 单数] the state of sb's health or how fit they are 健康状况

Eg. He is overweight and out of condition (= not physically fit).

他体重超重,健康状况不佳。

Eg. You are in no condition (= too ill, etc.) to go anywhere.

你的身体状况太差,不宜去任何地方。

(b) [可数名词] an illness or a medical problem that you have for a long time because it is not possible to cure it (因不可能治愈而长期患有的)疾病

Eg. a medical condition 疾病

Eg.He suffers from a serious heart condition.

他患有严重的心脏病。

解析:如上,condition两个跟“健康”有关的常见义项。区别方法有三个:上下文;固定搭配(见上例);第三就是数的特征:“健康状况”的含义只用作不可数名词或单数形式;“疾病”的含义是可数名词,所以复数形式conditions一定指“疾病”。

Eg. …public-health systems, which typically think carefully about how to screen for health conditions.

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

Eg.Known as hyperosmia, Mrs Milne’s conditionallows her to detect odours that are imperceptible to most people.

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

disorder:失调;紊乱;不适(见M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》)

Eg. neurodegenerative disorders 神经变性病

解析:

(a) 名词disorder的常见义项是“杂乱”和“动乱”;《嗅出帕金森病》中的用法是指某些疾病,即身体某部位或精神失调、紊乱。

(b) disorder表示疾病的用法要点包括三点:较为正式;一般不指传染病;常用于精神相关的疾病。

Eg. eating disorder/psychiatric/personality/mental disorder 进食障碍/精神错乱/人格障碍/精神紊乱

(c) 指身体部位机能失调时,一般搭配几个特定的词。

Eg. blood/bowel/stomach/kidney/liver disorder

血液病/闹肚子/胃病/肾病/肝病

infection:感染,传染病(见M·S10 《英国病人》)

解析:infection指细菌或病毒引起的身体某部位的感染或传染疾病。

Eg. Established HIV infection is easy to control but impossible to cure.

problem:(健康)问题(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》,M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

Eg. mental-health problem

心理健康问题,精神健康问题

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

Eg. a study of the over-65s that is hoping to discover if AFib screening can prevent stroke and other problems

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

attack:(尤指常发疾病的)发作(见M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

Eg. heart attack 心脏病发作

to suffer an asthma attack 哮喘发作

an acute attack of food poisoning 急性食物中毒

患病

动词have

Eg. The newly reported patient…hadHodgkin’s lymphoma…

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

Eg.…to quickly determine who hasthe disease and who does not.

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

Eg. Patients with AFib are five times more likely to havea stroke.

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

动词develop

Eg. developedan unrelated blood cancer

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

动词afflict,常用被动态

Eg. In any given year one person in six is afflictedby a mental illness.

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

动词词组suffer from

Eg. as the risk of suffering fromit (AFib) increases greatly with age

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

短语动词live with

Eg. He lived withthe disease for a number of years…

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

介词with/without(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》,M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》)

Eg. Yet in rich Western countries two-thirds of people with a mental-health problem do not receive any treatment for it.

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

Eg. the control subjects without the disease

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

描述病情

mild:轻微的

moderate:中等的

Eg. Most cases involve mild-to-moderate depression or anxiety.

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

chronic:慢性的,长期的

moderate:中等的

Eg. For many, however, the condition is left untreated and may become chronic or severe.

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

life-threatening:可能致命的,危及生命的

Eg. life-threatening condition

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

症状

symptom:症状(见M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》,M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

Eg. younger people who have no other symptoms

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

Eg. The rate at which these symptomsappear and worsen cannot be stopped or slowed yet but its most harmful effects can be staved off with drugs.

Eg.…the symptomswere initially manageable with medication…

Eg.That would allow drugs to help mitigate the symptoms tobe administered all the sooner.

以上3例选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

病痛

pain:痛苦(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. In the past social stigma meant that people kept their pain to themselves.

misery:痛苦(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. The cost in human misery is huge.

病情变化

remission:重病缓解

Eg. patients being “in remission”

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

recover:(从疾病中)康复(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. Some sufferers recover on their own.

病种

血液病(见M·S10 《英国病人》)

blood cancer/leukaemia:血癌/白血病

lymphoma:淋巴瘤

精神和心理疾病(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

mental illness:精神病

mental-health problem:心理健康问题,精神健康问题

depression:抑郁症

anxiety:焦虑

distress:痛苦

神经疾病(见M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》)

neurodegenerative disorders:神经变性病,神经退行性疾病

Parkinson’s (disease):帕金森病

tremor:震颤

rigidity:强直

dementia:痴呆

心血管病(见M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

cardiac/heart arrhythmia:心律不齐,心律失常

atrial fibrillation(缩写为AFib):心房颤动,心房纤颤,房颤

stroke:中风

heart attack:心脏病发作

病原体

(见M·S10 《英国病人》)

virus:病毒

HIV:艾滋病病毒

replicate:复制

reproductive chain:病毒的繁殖链条

resurgence:病毒重新开始繁殖

医疗词汇总结(四)

诊断与治疗

本节内容均出自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

track:跟踪

Eg.tracks your pulse

monitor:监测

Eg.monitored heart

One monitors the wearer for an irregular pulse.

the predictive value of the device’s monitoring for irregular pulses

inspect:检查

Eg. The other allows a brief but detailed electronic portrait, or ECG, to be captured and inspected for signsof a common heart arrhythmia called “atrial fibrillation”, or AFib.

screen:检查,筛查

Eg …public-health systems, which typically think carefully about how to screenfor health conditions.

AFib screening 房颤筛查

小结

monitor、inspect、screen三个词指监测或检查某种患病的症状时,如脉搏不规律或心律不齐,就要加介词for。

track指跟踪监测脉搏本身,所以用作及物动词,直接跟pulse作宾语。

同理,monitor等词指监测对象时,也是直接用作及物动词。如monitors [the wearer] (for an irregular pulse) 就很典型:the wearer为监测对象,for an irregular pulse为监测目标。

prevent:预防

Eg. a study of the over-65s that is hoping to discover if AFib screening can preventstroke and other problems

诊断

diagnose:[v.]诊断

Eg. In 1986, her husband, Les Milne, was diagnosed with Parkinson’s.

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

Eg. Yet herein lies one of the greatest challenges—there are no tests that diagnose whetherParkinson’s is actually present.

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

diagnosis:[n.]诊断(见M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》,M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

Eg. the ECG app, which is designed to deliver a diagnosis

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

Eg. Hence the search is on for a better form of diagnosis.

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

diagnostic:[adj.]诊断的

Eg. used odour as a diagnostic tool

选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

identify:识别出,分辨出

Eg …the app’s algorithm was able to correctly identify98.3% of true positives and 99.6% of true negatives.

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

find:发现

Eg the cases found by the watch

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

uncover:发现

Eg uncover cases of AFib that need treatment

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

detect:发现

Eg the AFib that it and other consumer devices, such as AliveCor, detect

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

pick up:发现,识别出

Eg AFib, picked up clinically, is important and worth treating…

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

治疗

sick day:带薪病假(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

see a doctor:看病(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. with so many more sufferers than can plausibly see a specialist.

treat/treatment:医治;治疗(见M·S10 《英国病人》,M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》,M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

  • treat sth/sb:治疗疾病/病人

Eg. treatmental illness…

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

Eg.To treatthis life-threatening condition

Eg.The newly reported patient, treatedby Ravindra Gupta of University College, London, and his colleagues

以上2例选自M·S10 《英国病人》

  • treatment for:某种病的治疗

Eg. an established, though extreme, treatmentfor various sorts of blood cancer an experimental anti-HIV treatment

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

  • receive treatment:接受治疗

Eg. Yet in rich Western countries two-thirds of people with a mental-health problem do not receive any treatmentfor it.

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

  • left untreated:未治疗

Eg. For many, however, the condition is left untreatedand may become chronic or severe.

选自M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》

  • need treatment:需要治疗

Eg. the ECG app, which is designed to deliver a diagnosis

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

  • be worth treating:值得治疗

Eg …AFib, picked up clinically, is important and worth treating

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

  • can be treated with:可以用XX治疗

Eg They (Patients with AFib) can be treated successfullywithblood-thinners…

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

therapy:治疗,疗法(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

解析:

(a) therapy一般指不动手术的治疗方法,也常指病后康复的疗法,多用于合成词。

Eg. Most leukaemia patients undergo some sort of drug therapy(= treatment using drugs).

绝大多数白血病患者都会接受某种药物治疗。

Eg.alternative/complementary/natural therapies (= treatments that do not use traditional drugs) 替代/补充/自然疗法

Eg.occupational/speech/group therapy 职业疗法/言语治疗/集体治疗

aromatherapy 芳香疗法

(b) 也可以用于比喻义。

Eg. Joining a club can be a therapyfor loneliness.

加入俱乐部可能是消解孤独的一种方法。

handle:处理(疾病)

Eg. how doctors should handlethe AFib that it and other consumer devices, such as AliveCor, detect

选自M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》

control:控制(病情)

Eg. Established HIV infection is easy to control but impossible to cure.

Eg. HIV-controlling drugs

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

suppress:抑制(病情)

Eg. a decade of successfully suppressinghis infection with antiretroviral drugs

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

procedure:手术

cc国际网投骗子Eg. …even if the editing of blood stem cells could be made to work reliably, transplanting them back into people would probably remain a rare procedure

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

emergency care:紧急护理(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

session:疗程(见M·S11 《专家不够用,外行来帮忙》)

Eg. Half of those who completetwo or moretherapy sessionsfor depression or anxiety recover…

cure:治愈(见M·S10 《英国病人》)

cure的宾语可以是患者(这时可以搭配of某种病),也可以是疾病;可以用于本意,也可用于比喻义。所以常用义项有4个。

(a) ~ sth to make an illness go away 治好(疾病)

Eg. Curing HIV 治愈艾滋病

(b) ~ sb (of sth) to make a person or an animal healthy again after an illness 治愈,治好(病人或动物)

Eg. A second case of someone probably cured of HIVhas been reported

第二例可能治愈的艾滋病病例

(c) ~ sth to deal with a problem successfully 解决,了结(问题)

Eg. I finally managed to cure the rattling noisein my car.

我最终设法解决了我汽车发出的格格响声。

(d) ~ sb of sth to stop sb from behaving in a particular way, especially a way that is bad or annoying 矫正,改正(某人的不良行为)

Eg. The experience was a detestable ordeal, and it cured him of any ambitionsto direct again.

那次经历是一次令人厌恶的煎熬,使得他放弃了任何再当导演的想法。

clear:~ A (of B) 清除,清理,(本文引申义)治愈

Eg. After two such transplants Mr Brown was cleared ofthe leukaemia

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

小结:

表示“治愈某人”时,cure和clear都是~ sb of sth的结构。

移植

本节内容均出自M·S10 《英国病人》

transplant(ation):移植

Eg. The newly reported patient…had Hodgkin’s lymphoma and underwent a stem-celltransplantfor this in 2016.

radiotherapy:放射治疗

transfuse:注入

donor:供体

match:配型

药物

drug:药物(见M·S10 《英国病人》,M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》)

medication:药物(见M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》)

用药:搭配动词use

Eg. Blood-stem-cell transplantation involves usingdrugs…to kill a patient’s natural blood-producing tissue

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

用药:搭配介词with

Eg.…its most harmful effects can be staved off with drugs.

Eg.…the symptoms were initially manageable with medication…

以上2例选自M·S13 《嗅出帕金森病》

停药:搭配withdraw/withdrawal

Eg. …the patient’s doctors withdrewthe HIV-controlling drugs…

the drugs’ withdrawal

以上2例选自M·S10 《英国病人》

抗药性

Eg. developed resistance to drugs

选自M·S10 《英国病人》

医疗设备

medical device:医疗设备(见M·S14 《看着你,我的小心肝,别停》)

医疗词汇总结(五)

其他

人体组织

(见M·S10 《英国病人》)

stem cell:干细胞

precursor:前体细胞

tissue:(人、动植物细胞的)组织

bone marrow:骨髓

reject:排斥,排异

基因

(见M·S10 《英国病人》)

gene:基因

mutation:突变,变异

protein:蛋白质

inherit:经遗传获得

edit:编辑基因

engineer:改变基因结构

TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

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TE精读 | 医疗篇大总结(三)

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